The pinhole technique has been considered as one of the simon-pure ways of recording light and producing images. Based on the propositions of centuries’ old pinhole camera or camera (“chamber” in French and “kamara” symbolizing vaulted chamber in Greek) obscura (dark) which is nothing more than a simple light tight box or a darken chamber with a hole in one side, the colossal use of the technique started in the Western Renaissance for producing images with linear perspective in paintings etc., albeit its corroboration dates back to as early as fifth century B.C. According to Hammond (1981:1), the Mohist Chinese philosopher Mo Ti (470 B.C.-391 B.C.) was the first to capture the formation of an inverted image on a screen utilizing a pinhole camera. He presumed that light travels in straight lines. Then, in the western hemisphere, the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384 B.C.-322 B.C.), in his work “Problems” mentioned about pinhole image formation but he couldn’t detect any satisfactory explanation to his observations leaving the problems vexed until the sixteenth century. Euclid, a Greek mathematician, in around 300 B.C., demonstrated that light travels in straight lines with a special mention to camera obscura in “Optics”. Anthemius of Tralles (during sixth century A.D.), a Greek professor of geometry, also used camera obscura for his many experiments. During the tenth century A.D., the Arabian physicist and mathematician Ibn-al-Haytham (Alhazen) manifested the rectilinear propagation of light by experimenting the image formation through a tiny hole in a “Dark Chamber”. Shen Kuo (1031-1095), the Chinese scientist from the Song Dynasty also cited about camera obscura in his book “Dream Pool Essays”. During the thirteenth century, Roger Bacon Arnaldus de Villa Nova also mentioned about the camera obscura. Then, it was in the manuscript “Codex Atlanticus” (c.1485), the first ever comprehensive description about the pinhole camera was accredited by one of the greatest painters of all times and the multifariously proficient person from the western world Leonardo da Vinci who used it to study perspective. Giovanni Battista Della Porta (1538-1615) from Naples elucidated pinhole camera in his first edition “Magia Naturalis”. Gemma Frisius, an astronomer studied the solar eclipse of 1544 using a pinhole in a darkened room and was apparently said to be the first published picture of a pinhole camera obscura titled “Gemma Frisius’ De Radio Astronomica et Geometrica”.
It was Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) who actually coined the very term “Camera Obscura” which simply meant a dark room, tent or box with a hole on one side and was used by artists to draw landscapes. In 1620’s, he invented a portable camera obscura which was extensively used by artists and painters. In 1658, Thomas Browne, an English Polymath and author, in his “The Garden Of Cyrus” hypothesized about optics and camera obscura. David Brewster (from Scotland), William Crookes (a British Chemist and Physicist) and William de Wiveleslie Abney (an English astronomer, chemist and photographer) were amongst the first to try pinhole photographs. Then later, Joseph Nicephore Niepce, Louis Daguerre and William Fox Talbot were accredited for creating the earliest permanent existing photographs using the camera obscura.